Finde zum Albanien vs. Weißrussland Tipp alle Infos, eine detaillierte Prognose, Wettquoten, Statistiken sowie H2H-Bilanz und Team-Check. Albanien vs. Kosovo, Testspiel: Anpfiff, Ort und Uhrzeit. Das Freundschaftsspiel zwischen Albanien und Kosovo findet am heutigen Mittwoch. Gegner aus UEFA, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Die Bilanz gegen, Andorra, 5, 3, 1, 1, Die Bilanz gegen, Armenien, 5, 3, 1, 1, Die Bilanz gegen, Aserbaidschan, 5, 3.
Albanien vs. Kosovo: TV und Livestream – alles zur Live-Übertragung des FreundschaftspielsAlbanien vs. Kosovo, Testspiel: Anpfiff, Ort und Uhrzeit. Das Freundschaftsspiel zwischen Albanien und Kosovo findet am heutigen Mittwoch. Finde zum Albanien vs. Weißrussland Tipp alle Infos, eine detaillierte Prognose, Wettquoten, Statistiken sowie H2H-Bilanz und Team-Check. Gegner aus UEFA, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Die Bilanz gegen, Andorra, 5, 3, 1, 1, Die Bilanz gegen, Armenien, 5, 3, 1, 1, Die Bilanz gegen, Aserbaidschan, 5, 3.
Albanien Vs Navigationsmenu VideoSerbia vs Albania // full report 2017
Hentet 3. United Nations. Hentet Jak Junkut t' Scocniis N'Sckoder t' Scc Central Intelligence Agency. Institute of Statistics of Albania.
Arkiveret fra originalen PDF BBC News. The wars of the Balkan Peninsula. The Albanian lexicon of Dion Von Kirkman. Earliest reference to the existence of the Albanian language , pp.
History of Albania A Brief Overview. Tirana, United Nations Development Programme. Hentet 9. John Boardman et al.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, , — The Cambridge ancient history. ISBN , page ," A History of Macedonia: B. Clarendon Press.
The Illyrians. Balkans: A Post-Communist History. From AD onward, the lands now known as Albania began to be overrun from the north by ever-increasing Iwaskiw, red.
February 20, Archived from the original on Retrieved Foreign relations of Albania. Egypt Libya. Brazil Canada United States. When the Ottomans were gaining a firm foothold in the region, Albanian towns were organised into four principal sanjaks.
The government fostered trade by settling a sizeable Jewish colony of refugees fleeing persecution in Spain.
The phenomenon of Islamisation among the Albanians became primarily widespread from the 17th century and continued into the 18th century. However, motives for conversion were, according to some scholars, diverse depending on the context though the lack of source material does not help when investigating such issues.
Since the Albanians were seen as strategically important, they made up a significant proportion of the Ottoman military and bureaucracy.
A couple of Muslim Albanians attained important political and military positions who culturally contributed to the broader Muslim world.
The Albanian Renaissance was a period with its roots in the late 18th century and continuing into the 19th century, during which the Albanian people gathered spiritual and intellectual strength for an independent cultural and political life within an independent nation.
Modern Albanian culture flourished too, especially Albanian literature and arts , and was frequently linked to the influences of the Romanticism and Enlightenment principles.
Prior to the rise of nationalism , Albania was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire for almost five centuries, and Ottoman authorities suppressed any expression of national unity or conscience by the Albanian people.
Through literature, Albanians started to make a conscious effort to awaken feelings of pride and unity among their people that would call to mind the rich history and hopes for a more decent future.
The victory of Russia over the Ottoman Empire following the Russian-Ottoman Wars resulted the execution of the Treaty of San Stefano which overlooked to assign Albanian-populated lands to the Slavic and Greek neighbours.
From this point, Albanians started to organise themselves with the goal to protect and unite the Albanian-populated lands into a unitary nation, leading to the formation of the League of Prizren.
The league had initially the assistance of the Ottoman authorities whose position was based on the religious solidarity of Muslim people and landlords connected with the Ottoman administration.
They favoured and protected the Muslim solidarity and called for defense of Muslim lands simultaneously constituting the reason for titling the league Committee of the Real Muslims.
Approximately Muslims participated in the assembly composed by delegates from Bosnia, the administrator of the Sanjak of Prizren as representatives of the central authorities and no delegates from Vilayet of Scutari.
The league used military force to prevent the annexing areas of Plav and Gusinje assigned to Montenegro. The league was later defeated by the Ottoman army sent by the sultan.
On 29 July , the Treaty of London delineated the borders of the country and its neighbors, leaving many Albanians outside Albania, predominantly partitioned between Montenegro , Serbia and Greece.
In November, the first gendarmerie members arrived in the country. This initiative was short lived, and in the southern provinces were incorporated into the Albanian Principality.
In May and June , the International Gendarmerie was joined by Isa Boletini and his men, mostly from Kosovo ,  and northern Mirdita Catholics, were defeated by the rebels who captured most of Central Albania by the end of August Following the end of the government of Fan Noli , the parliament adopted a new constitution and proclaimed the country as a parliamentary republic in which King Zog I of Albania Ahmet Muhtar Zogu served as the head of state for a seven-year term.
Immediately after, Tirana was endorsed officially as the country's permanent capital. The politics of Zogu was authoritarian and conservative with the primary aim of the maintenance of stability and order.
He was forced to adopt a policy of cooperation with Italy where a pact had been signed between both countries, whereby Italy gained a monopoly on shipping and trade concessions.
Zogu remained a conservative but initiated reforms and placed great emphasis on the development of infrastructure. In an attempt at social modernisation, the custom of adding one's region to one's name was dropped.
He also made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals. The armed forces were trained and supervised by instructors from Italy, and as a counterweight, he kept British officers in the Gendarmerie despite strong Italian pressure to remove them.
After being militarily occupied by Italy from until , the Kingdom of Albania was a protectorate and a dependency of the Kingdom of Italy governed by Victor Emmanuel III and his government.
In October , Albania served as a staging ground for an unsuccessful Italian invasion of Greece. A counterattack resulted in a sizeable portion of southern Albania coming under Greek military control until April when Greece capitulated during the German invasion.
In April , territories of Yugoslavia with substantial Albanian population were annexed to Albania inclusively western Macedonia, a strip of eastern Montenegro, the town of Tutin in central Serbia and most of Kosovo [a].
Germans started to occupy the country in September and subsequently announced that they would recognise the independence of a neutral Albania and set about organising a new government, military and law enforcement.
During the last years of the war, the country fell into a civil war-like state between the communists and nationalists.
The communists defeated the last anti-communist forces in the south in Before the end of November, the main German troops had withdrawn from Tirana, and the communists took control by attacking it.
The partisans entirely liberated the country from German occupation on 29 November By the end of the Second World War , the main military and political force of the nation, the Communist party sent forces to northern Albania against the nationalists to eliminate its rivals.
About Kelmendi  people were killed or tortured. This event was the starting point of many other issues which took place during Enver Hoxha 's dictatorship.
Class struggle was strictly applied, human freedom and human rights were denied. Many Kelmendi people fled, and some were executed trying to cross the border.
At this point, the country started to develop foreign relations with other communist countries, among others with the People's Republic of China. During this period, the country experienced an increasing industrialisation and urbanisation, a rapid collectivisation and economic growth which led to a higher standard of living.
The new land reform laws were passed granting ownership of the land to the workers and peasants who tilled it. Agriculture became cooperative , and production increased significantly, leading to the country becoming agriculturally self-sufficient.
In the field of education, illiteracy was eliminated among the country's adult population. The nation incurred large debts initially with Yugoslavia until , then the Soviet Union until and China from the middle of the s.
Today a secular state without any official religion , religious freedoms and practices were severely curtailed during the communist era with all forms of worship being outlawed.
In , the Agrarian Reform Law meant that large swaths of property owned by religious groups were nationalised, mostly the waqfs along with the estates of mosques, tekkes, monasteries and dioceses.
Many believers, along with the ulema and many priests, were arrested and executed. In , a new Decree on Religious Communities required that all their activities be sanctioned by the state alone.
After hundreds of mosques and dozens of Islamic libraries containing priceless manuscripts were destroyed, Hoxha proclaimed Albania the world's first atheist state in A law banned all fascist, religious, and antisocialist activity and propaganda.
Preaching religion carried a three to ten-year prison sentence. Nonetheless, many Albanians continued to practice their beliefs secretly.
The anti-religious policy of Hoxha attained its most fundamental legal and political expression a decade later: "The state recognizes no religion", states the constitution, "and supports and carries out atheistic propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialistic world outlook in people".
After forty years of communism and isolation as well as the revolutions of , people, most notably students, became politically active and campaigned against the government that led to the transformation of the existing order.
Following the popular support in the first multi-party elections of , the communists retained a stronghold in the parliament until the victory in the general elections of led by the Democratic Party.
Considerable economic and financial resources were devoted to pyramid schemes that were widely supported by the government.
The schemes swept up somewhere between one sixth and one third of the population of the country. The schemes began to collapse in late , leading many of the investors to join initially peaceful protests against the government, requesting their money back.
The protests turned violent in February as government forces responded with fire. In March, the Police and Republican Guard deserted, leaving their armouries open.
These were promptly emptied by militias and criminal gangs. The resulting civil war caused a wave of evacuations of foreign nationals and refugees.
In April , Operation Alba , a UN peacekeeping force led by Italy, entered the country with two goals exclusively to assist with the evacuation of expatriates and to secure the ground for international organisations.
The main international organisation that was involved was the Western European Union 's multinational Albanian Police element, which worked with the government to restructure the judicial system and simultaneously the Albanian Police.
Between and , Edi Rama of the Socialist Party won both the and parliamentary elections. As a Prime Minister , he implemented numerous reforms focused on modernising the economy , as well as democratising the state institutions, including the country's judiciary and law enforcement.
Unemployment has been steadily reduced while having the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans. On 26 November , a 6.
For a small country, much of Albania rises into mountains and hills that run in different directions across the length and breadth of its territory.
The most extensive mountain ranges are the Albanian Alps in the north, the Korab Mountains in the east, the Pindus Mountains in the southeast, the Ceraunian Mountains in the southwest and the Skanderbeg Mountains in the centre.
Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the country is the presence of numerous important lakes. Rivers rise mostly in the east of Albania and discharge into the Adriatic Sea but as well as into the Ionian Sea to a lesser extent.
The longest river in the country, measured from its mouth to its source, is the Drin that starts at the confluence of its two headwaters, the Black and White Drin.
The climate in the country is extremely variable and diverse owing to the differences in latitude, longitude and altitude. The warmest areas of the country are immediately placed along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea Coasts.
On the contrary, the coldest areas are positioned within the northern and eastern highlands. The highest temperature of Rainfall naturally varies from season to season and from year to year.
The country receives most of the precipitation in winter months and less in summer months. Snowfall occurs frequently in winter in the highlands of the country, particularly on the mountains in the north and east, including the Albanian Alps and Korab Mountains.
Snow also falls on the coastal areas in the southwest almost every winter such as in the Ceraunian Mountains , where it can lie even beyond March.
A biodiversity hotspot , Albania possesses an exceptionally rich and contrasting biodiversity on account of its geographical location at the centre of the Mediterranean Sea and the great diversity in its climatic , geological and hydrological conditions.
The estuaries, wetlands and lakes are extraordinarily important for the greater flamingo , pygmy cormorant and the extremely rare and perhaps the most iconic bird of the country, the dalmatian pelican.
In terms of phytogeography , Albania is part of the Boreal Kingdom and stretches specifically within the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal and Mediterranean Region.
Its territory can be subdivided into four terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic realm namely within the Illyrian deciduous forests , Balkan mixed forests , Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Dinaric Mountains mixed forests.
Approximately 3, different species of plants can be found in Albania which refers principally to a Mediterranean and Eurasian character. The country maintains a vibrant tradition of herbal and medicinal practices.
At the minimum plants growing locally are used in the preparation of herbs and medicines. In the Environmental Performance Index , Albania was ranked 23rd out of countries in the world.
The protected areas of Albania are the system through the Albanian government protects, maintains and displays some of the country's most impressive and treasured environments.
There are 15 national parks , 4 ramsar sites , 1 biosphere reserve and other types of conservation reserves across Albania all of them depicting a huge variety of natural sceneries ranging from imposing mountains to picturesque coasts.
Albania has fifteen officially designated national parks scattered across its territory. Further south sprawls the Butrint National Park on a peninsula that is surrounded by the Lake of Butrint and Channel of Vivari on the eastern half of the Straits of Corfu.
Dajti National Park is equipped with a cable car and trails to some spectacular scenery is a popular retreat in the capital, Tirana.
Albania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.
The government is based on the separation and balancing of powers among the legislative , judiciary and executive. The civil law , codified and based on the Napoleonic Code , is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts.
The judicial power is vested in the supreme court , constitutional court , appeal court and administrative court.
It carries out nearly all general police duties including criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing and border control.
The executive power is exercised by the president and prime minister whereby the power of the president is very limited. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.
The prime minister, appointed by the president and approved by the parliament, is authorized to constitute the cabinet. The cabinet is composed primarily of the prime minister inclusively its deputies and ministers.
In the time since the end of communism and isolationism , Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in continental and international affairs, developing and establishing friendly relations with other countries around the world.
The country's foreign policy priorities are its accession into the European Union EU , the international recognition of Kosovo and the expulsion of Cham Albanians , as well as helping and protecting the rights of the Albanians in Kosovo , Montenegro , North Macedonia , Greece , Serbia , Italy and the Diaspora.
The country has been extensively engaged with the NATO and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of the United States and the European Union EU in the region of the Balkans.
Albania maintains strong ties with the United States ever after it supported the Albania's independence and democracy. In , Albania welcomed George W.
Bush who became the first President of the United States ever to visit the country. Albania and Kosovo are culturally, socially and economically very closely rooted due to the Albanian majority population in Kosovo.
In , the country contributed in supporting allied efforts to end the humanitarian tragedy in Kosovo and secure the peace after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.
Albania has been an active member of the United Nations since They country took on membership for the United Nations Economic and Social Council from to as well as in They are led by a commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defence and by the President as the supreme commander during wartime however, in times of peace its powers are executed through the Prime Minister and the Defence Minister.
The chief purpose of the armed forces of Albania is the defence of the independence, the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the country, as well as the participation in humanitarian, combat, non-combat and peace support operations.
Albania has committed to increase the participations in multinational operations. Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65, in to 14, in In the s, the country scrapped enormous amounts of obsolete hardware from China, such as tanks and SAM systems.
Increasing the military budget was one of the most important conditions for NATO integration. Military spending has generally been low.
As of military spending was an estimated 1. The country is divided into three regions, the Northern , Central and Southern Region , which consist of a number of counties qarqe and municipalities bashkia.
The highest level of administrative divisions are the twelve constituent counties. Nonetheless, they are further subdivided into 61 municipalities with each of them being responsible for geographical, economic, social and cultural purposes inside the counties.
The counties were created on 31 July to replace the 36 former districts. The defunct municipalities are known as neighborhoods or villages.
The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement. The largest county in Albania, by population, is Tirana County with over , people.
The transition from a socialist planned economy to a capitalist mixed economy in Albania has been largely successful. In , it had the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans with an estimated value of The lek ALL is the country's currency and is pegged at approximately ,51 lek per euro.
The country's most important infrastructure facilities take course through both of the cities, connecting the north to the south as well as the west to the east.
The economy is expected to expand in the near term, driven by a recovery in consumption and robust investments. Growth is projected to be 3. Agriculture in the country is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units.
It remains a significant sector of the economy of Albania. One of the earliest farming sites in Europe has been found in the southeast of the country.
Albania produces significant amounts of fruits apples, olives , grapes, oranges, lemons, apricots , peaches , cherries , figs , sour cherries , plums , and strawberries , vegetables potatoes, tomatoes, maize, onions, and wheat , sugar beets , tobacco, meat, honey , dairy products , traditional medicine and aromatic plants.
Further, the country is a worldwide significant producer of salvia , rosemary and yellow gentian. The World Bank and European Community economists report that, Albania's fishing industry has good potential to generate export earnings because prices in the nearby Greek and Italian markets are many times higher than those in the Albanian market.
The fish available off the coasts of the country are carp , trout , sea bream , mussels and crustaceans. Albania has one of Europe's longest histories of viticulture.
The oldest found seeds in the region are 4, to 6, years old. The secondary sector of Albania have undergone many changes and diversification, since the collapse of the communist regime in the country.
It is very diversified, from electronics , manufacturing ,  textiles , to food , cement , mining ,  and energy. Albania has the second largest oil deposits in the Balkan peninsula after Romania , and the largest oil reserves  in Europe.
The Albpetrol company is owned by the Albanian state and monitors the state petroleum agreements in the country. The textile industry has seen an extensive expansion by approaching companies from the European Union EU in Albania.
Albania is a significant minerals producer and is ranked among the world's leading chromium producers and exporters.
The tertiary sector represents the fastest growing sector of the country's economy. Previously one of the most isolated and controlled countries in the world, telecommunication industry represents nowadays another major contributor to the sector.
It developed largely through privatisation and subsequent investment by both domestic and foreign investors. Tourism is recognised as an industry of national importance and has been steadily increasing since the beginnings of the 21st century.
The increase of foreign visitors has been dramatic. Albania had only , visitors in , while in had an estimated 4.
In , tourism in summer increased by 25 percent in contrast the previous year according to the country's tourism agency. The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic and Ionian Sea in the west of the country.
However, the Albanian Riviera in the southwest has the most scenic and pristine beaches, and is often called the pearl of the Albanian coast.
Its coastline has a considerable length of kilometres miles. Some parts of this seaside are very clean ecologically, which represent in this prospective unexplored areas, which are very rare within the Mediterranean.
Hoxha for E. Berisha 46' E. Hysaj for B. Balaj 46' R. Manaj for T. Seferi 46' F. Veseli for E. Hoxhallari 46' S. Kallaku for L. Selahi 65' M. Ismajlgeci for M.
Uzuni 85'. Rashkaj for H. Kryeziu 46' E. Zhegrova for Lirim Kastrati I 46' E. Rashani for B. Berisha 46' F. Hasani for B.
Celina 46' M. Vojvoda for F. Hinzu kam, dass Fehlinvestitionen wie zum Beispiel in das gigantische Stahlwerk von Elbasan den Staatshaushalt stark belasteten.
Was den Anteil der Beschäftigten in den verschiedenen Wirtschaftszweigen angeht, blieb Albanien ein Agrarstaat.
Auch in den er Jahren arbeiteten zwei Drittel der Werktätigen in der Landwirtschaft. Im letzten Jahrzehnt vor der Wende konnte die Nahrungsmittelerzeugung den wachsenden Bedarf nicht mehr decken.
Die meisten Grundnahrungsmittel wurden rationiert. Aus ideologischen Gründen waren den Bauern jegliche Privatgeschäfte streng verboten.
Selbst Kleinvieh durfte nicht mehr zu Hause gehalten werden. Vielmehr ging die Unterdrückung der eigenen Bevölkerung weiter, wie in Form von Internierungsdörfern.
Diese wurden in abgelegenen und von der Natur wenig begünstigten Gegenden den Sümpfen der Küstenebene und in Hochgebirgstälern angelegt.
In einer Art von Sippenhaft wurden dorthin Familien von Personen deportiert, die sich angeblicher politischer Vergehen schuldig gemacht hatten.
Der Tod des langjährigen politischen Weggefährten Enver Hoxhas wurde offiziell als Selbstmord ausgegeben. Wahrscheinlich wurde Shehu aber im Auftrag Hoxhas beseitigt.
Nach seinem Tod wurde Ramiz Alia 1. Allerdings bemühte er sich — nicht zuletzt wegen der desolaten Wirtschaftslage — um die Wiederaufnahme oder die Vertiefung diplomatischer Beziehungen zu verschiedenen westlichen und östlichen Staaten.
Im Oktober unterzeichnete die albanische Regierung ein Handelsabkommen mit Jugoslawien. Trotz Isolationismus erfuhr die albanische Bevölkerung über Rundfunk und Fernsehen aus den Nachbarländern von den politischen Veränderungen im Ostblock.
Im Januar gab es in Shkodra erste Demonstrationen und im Juli flohen tausende Albaner in westliche Botschaften — allein in die deutsche.
Im November wurde das Religionsverbot aufgehoben und in Shkodra gab es seit den ersten katholischen Gottesdienst. Kurz darauf folgten Muslime und Orthodoxe Christen diesem Beispiel.
Zunächst war nicht absehbar, ob die Regierung gewaltsam gegen eine Revolution vorgehen würde. Wegen der verzweifelten wirtschaftlichen Lage und der unsicheren politischen Situation flüchteten Tausende illegal über die verschneiten Berge nach Griechenland.
Trotzdem emigrierten auch später noch viele Albaner nach Italien. März Die neue Regierung begann gleichwohl mit einigen Reformen.
Die Streitkräfte wurden formell der Parteikontrolle entzogen und unter das Kommando der parlamentarischen Regierung gestellt.
Juni musste die Regierung von Fatos Nano zurücktreten, nachdem es zu einem landesweiten Generalstreik gekommen war. Für die nächsten neun Monate wurde eine Regierung der nationalen Einheit gebildet.
Mit der Türkei , zu der historische und kulturelle Bindungen bestehen, schloss Albanien einen umfassenden Beistandspakt ab. Shkodra und Tirana. Im Sommer belastete die Ausweisung eines griechisch-orthodoxen Priesters die albanisch-griechischen Beziehungen.
Juli wurde Albanien als Mitglied in den Europarat aufgenommen. Fünf Jahre nach der Wende zeichnete sich das Scheitern des Transformationsprozesses ab.
Die Wirtschaftsumgestaltung stagnierte, die Industrieproduktion und die Sozialsysteme brachen zusammen, es fehlten Gesetze zum Privateigentum, zur Firmengründung, zum Zoll und zum Bankwesen und der Privatbankensektor war ohne gesetzliche Regelung.
Das Land der Staatsbetriebe wurde ab wild aufgeteilt und der beanspruchte Boden mit herausgerissenen Eisenbahnschienen und Telegrafendrähten markiert.
Die seit Ende der er Jahre herrschende Lebensmittelknappheit verschärfte sich und die Auswanderung dauerte an. Korruption und Vetternwirtschaft florierten, die Posten in Regierung und Verwaltung wurden unter Clans aufgeteilt.
Wahlfälschungen bei der Parlamentswahl am Mai und 2. Juni sicherten Berisha die Macht. Mitte der er Jahre galt die Aufmerksamkeit der westlichen Regierungen vorrangig der Bewältigung der Kriegsfolgen im ehemaligen Jugoslawien.
Die wenigen Abgeordneten des Europäischen Parlaments, die sich mit Albanien befassten, hielten sich mit Kritik an Berishas Regierung und den Wahlfälschungen von aus Mangel an politischen Alternativen zurück.
Anfang brachen nach Kreditbetrugsfällen landesweit Unruhen aus. Die Ursachen für den Lotterieaufstand waren vielschichtig, letztlich wurde wegen des in allen Teilen gescheiterten Transformationsprozesses rebelliert.
Es gab Plünderungen, Zerstörungen und bürgerkriegähnliche Zustände; mehr als Menschen starben. Die Europäische Union organisierte Aufbauhilfe, die Wirtschaft erholte sich und die Lebensverhältnisse wurden besser.
Es gab nach wie vor ökonomische Probleme, eine hohe Arbeitslosigkeit und ein instabiles politisches System. Die Krise solidarisierte Albanien und politische Gegner kooperierten vorübergehend.
Die Parlamentswahlen von wurden von einer Mitte-rechts-Koalition gewonnen. Die Sozialistische Partei beklagte Wahlmanipulationen, was in Albanien eine politische Krise auslöste.
Die Sozialisten boykottierten zeitweilig das Parlament und organisierten Demonstrationen, die im Januar eskalierten, es gab mehrere Tote.
Juni wurde Albanien der EU-Beitrittskandidatenstatus vergeben. April beschloss das Parlament die Öffnung der Archive der kommunistischen Geheimpolizei Sigurimi.
Über den Zugang für Überwachte, Institutionen und ehemalige Mitarbeiter entscheidet ein 5-köpfiges Komitee und stellt Staatsdienstanwärtern und Wahlkandidaten Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigungen aus.
Ab hatten Anfang der er Jahre wurde sie aufgelöst. Juli beschloss das Parlament mit einem international vermittelten Konsens zwischen der Regierung und der Opposition eine Verfassungsänderung und verabschiedete mehrere Gesetze, um die von der Venedig-Kommission empfohlene Justizreform umzusetzen, die monatelang umstritten war.
Im Frühjahr boykottierte die Demokratische Partei 90 Tage lang das Parlament und die Präsidentschaftswahl und ernannte auch keine Kandidaten für die Parlamentswahl am Juni , weil sie unter der damaligen Regierung keine faire und freie Wahl erwartete.
Die albanische Regierung beauftragte die Internationale Kommission für vermisste Personen mit der Suche und Identifikation von vermissten Opfern der kommunistischen Repression.
November desselben Jahres ihre Arbeit auf. Seit Beginn der er Jahre wurden etwa getötete Opfern der Gewaltherrschaft der PAA identifiziert, aber die Grabstätten sind meistens nicht bekannt.
Europäisches Nichtmitglied der Vereinten Nationen: Vatikanstadt. In: ScienceDaily. April , abgerufen am September englisch.
Wilkes : The Illyrians. Hubert Neuwirth: Widerstand und Kollaboration in Albanien — In: Die Welt.
Januar Abgerufen am Ostermann Hrsg. Von der Gründung bis zum Zusammenbruch — Oldenbourg , S. Januar bis Bunkerland Albanien , in: SpiegelOnline, 6.
August Dezember PDF Nicht mehr online verfügbar. Auswärtiges Amt , archiviert vom Original am März ; abgerufen am 4. Info: Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft.
März S. In: Balkan Insight. Juni , abgerufen am Januar englisch. November , abgerufen am Kategorien : Wikipedia:Lesenswert Albanische Geschichte.
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Vordringen und Ansiedlung der Slawen. Einrichtung des byzantinischen Themas Dyrrhachion. Mittel- und Südalbanien Teil des Bulgarischen Reiches.
Einfall der Normannen in das unter byzantinischer Herrschaft stehende Albanien. Fürstentum Arbanon in Mittelalbanien. Vierter Kreuzzug , Zerfall des byzantinischen Reiches.